Grammar Toolbox: Joining sentences

There are many ways to join sentences. Here are a few examples:

and shows extra information, a next step, etc.:

  • Susan switched off the lights and went to bed.

or shows an alternative, another option or possibility:

  • You can come alone or bring a friend.

but shows a contrast, something that goes against the first sentence:

  • Andrew had to study for the exam, but fell asleep after half an hour.

so shows a natural next step, a logical consequence:

  • I felt lonely, so I went over to a friend of mine.


Other ways of joining sentences

We can join sentences by using words like ...

  • Joan left early. She had to be home by nine.
  • Joan left early because she had to be home by nine.

Here are some examples:

Time: while, before, after, as, since, as soon as

  • Before we left, we checked that all the windows were closed.

Cause: because, as, since

  • Since there was no food left, we had to go fishing.

Purpose/result: so that

  • She tip-toed across the floor so that no one would hear her.

Contrast: although, though, even though

  • Although she had a high fever, Deborah went to school the next day.

Condition: if, in case

  • If you come tomorrow, I'll show you a new project of mine.